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The Biology Behind BioXclude ®
The Biology Behind BioXclude®
The Biology Behind BioXclude ®

Infection Prevention
In addition to protecting the developing child from an attack from the mother’s immune system, the amnion-chorion membrane actively works to fight uterine infections that would pose a significant threat to the pregnancy.

“The chorion trophoblast layer is likely to have a particularly critical role in preventing infection ascending from the vagina crossing the fetal membranes and reaching the amniotic fluid and fetus.”
- King, et al., Placenta (2007) 28, p.161-169.

The trophoblast layer of the chorion is the outermost layer of the amniotic sac membrane. In addition to providing a physical barrier to infection, the trophoblast layer is loaded with beta-defensins, potent cysteine-rich peptides that fight bacterial, fungal, and viral infections.

Beta-defensins are short (18-45 a.a.), cysteine-rich peptides found in mucosal tissues, include the respiratory tract, reproductive tract, oral cavity, and placental tissues. The peptides are active against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses.
© Adrei Lomize / Wikimedia Commons

Recent studies that highlight the infection fighting capabilities of BioXclude against strains of bacteria associated with periodontal disease include:

1. Ashraf H, Font K, Powell C, and Schurr M. Antimicrobial Activity of an Amnion-Chorion Membrane to Oral Microbes. International Journal of Dentistry, 2019. 2019: p. 7. This study examined the ability of BioXclude inhibit the growth of three different strains of bacteria: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus oralis. Based on the observation that no colony forming units (CFUs) were recovered from BioXclude membranes after being inoculated onto the membranes and incubated for 12 and 24 hours, the authors concluded that the BioXclude membranes were bactericidal, performing as well in this study as tetracycline.

2. Palanker ND, Lee C-T, Weltman RL, Tribble GD, van der Hoeven R, Hong J, and Wang B. Antimicrobial Efficacy Assessment of Human Derived Composite Amnion-Chorion Membrane. Scientific reports, 2019. 9(1): p. 15600. Using three novel assays to directly evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of BioXclude, this study was able to observe that BioXclude acted to kill Streptococcus gordonii Challis, a Gram-positive bacterium and one of the initial colonizers in the oral cavity.